Tivoli - 85 km fra Orte

Se 4 flotte slideshow med mange billeder fra:

Villa D'Este's Have
Villa D'Este's Have II
Kejser Hadrians villa
Tivoli

 
Nordvest for Rom ligger Tivoli med Hadrians Villa og Villa d'Este. 
    
Tivoli: Villa Adriana
I middelalderen foretrak folk at bosætte sig på bakkerne i udkanten af Lepinerbjergene for at beskytte sig mod røvere og barbarinvasioner og for at opnå fordelene ved at leve i grupper. Således dannedes de såkaldte rocche (dvs. fæstninger) – Rocca Massima, Rocca Gorga..., de såkaldte castelli (dvs. borge) – Artena, Sermoneta og Giulianello og, med andre formål, de vigtige religiøse centre Anagni, Valvisciolo, Fossanove etc.
 

Ikke så langt udenfor Rom ligger Tivoli, som i oldtiden hed Tibur, og var allerde da et yndet sted for romerne at holde ferie, når sommervarmen blev for meget inde i Rom.

Tivoli was already a favourite holiday resort for the Romans as well as a place for the worship of local divinities. It is now the site of the Villa Gregoriana, a fine Cathedral, the renowned Rocca Pia, and, above all, the Villa d'Este, with an Italian garden deservedly famous for its magic atmosphere.

Built on the ruins of a Roman villa, it was first a Benedictine convent and then the Governor's Palace, and as such was magnificently restored by Pirro Ligorio on commission of the governor at the time, Ippolito d'Este, around 1550. After various vicissitudes it became the property of Austria, was returned to the Italians in 1918, then re­stored before the monumental part and the immense park were opened to the public. Of note on the grounds is the Loggia by Pirro Ligorio, which is the finest part of the main facade which faces the city and the mountains.

The Italian gardens, with their geometric compartmentalisation, the five hundred fountains, the age and rarity of the trees, is certainly one of the finest gardens to be found both in and outside Italy. No visit is complete without a stop at the Grotto of Diana, richly stuccoed with mythological scenes, the so called « Rometta » or little Rome, with reproductions in an allusive key of parts of the city (the Isola Tiberina, the ruins), the various Fountains of Bacchus, the Organ Fountain (the water organ was designed by Claudio Vernard), the fountains of Proserpine, of the Dragons (signed by Ligorio), of the « Mete », of the Eagles, and so on, up to the romantic Cypress Rotonda, considered one of the most enchanting elements in both garden and villa. Even in this end of thè garden signs of antiquity are present, as witnessed by the ruins of a Roman villa to the right of the Cypress Rotonda.

Tivoli is also the site of an imposing architectural complex dating to Hadrian's time. This emperor's gifts as an architect can be seen in the series of palaces, baths, theatres, etc. which he had built there between 118 and 134 and which were meant to remind him, here in Italy, of the places he most loved in Greece and the Near East.

Mentioned for the first time in literature by Flavio Biondo, the Villa, or rather what was left of it, was visited and studied by famous persons (Pope Pius II, Pirro Ligorio) and excavations were carried out particularly in the 18th century (Piranesi made engravings of some parts). Bought by the Italian government in 1870 from the Braschi family which had owned it since the beginning of the 19th century, the villa was restored, while many of the works of art (especially sculpture) from the site can now be seen in the rooms of the Museo Nazionale Romano. Mention will be made only of some of the best known and important places in the complex. For an idea of the entire set-up (and as orientation) a study of the model at the entrance, even though it is more a matter of hypothesis, can be useful. The monuments include the Stoà Poikile (commonly called Pecile) and the Naval Theater, the Small Thermae and the Great Thermae, the Canopus (with obvious reference to the sanctuary in Egypt), the Museum (with the precious objects found in the excava­tions, including a copy of the Amazon by Phidias), and lastly the Emperor's Palace subdivided into three blocks and aptly described as a « city in the shape of a palace ».

La Storia
Villa d’Este, capolavoro del giardino italiano e inserita nella lista UNESCO del patrimonio mondiale, con l’impressionante concentrazione di fontane, ninfei, grotte, giochi d’acqua e musiche idrauliche costituisce un modello più volte emulato nei giardini europei del manierismo e del barocco.
Il giardino va per di più considerato nello straordinario contesto paesaggistico, artistico e storico di Tivoli, che presenta sia i resti prestigiosi di ville antiche come Villa Adriana, sia un territorio ricco di forre , caverne e cascate, simbolo di una guerra millenaria tra pietra e acque. Le imponenti costruzioni e le terrazze sopra terrazze fanno pensare ai Giardini pensili di Babilonia, una delle meraviglie del mondo antico, mentre l’adduzione delle acque, con un acquedotto e un traforo sotto la città, rievoca la sapienza ingegneresca dei romani.
Il cardinale Ippolito II d’Este, dopo le delusioni per la mancata elezione pontificia, fece rivivere qui i fasti delle corti di Ferrara, Roma e Fointanebleau e rinascere la magnificenza di Villa Adriana. Governatore di Tivoli dal 1550, carezzò subito l’idea di realizzare un giardino nel pendio dirupato della “Valle gaudente”, ma soltanto dopo il 1560 si chiarì il programma architettonico e iconologico della Villa, ideato dal pittore-archeologo-architetto Pirro Ligorio e realizzato dall’architetto di corte Alberto Galvani.
Le sale del Palazzo vennero decorate sotto la direzione di protagonisti del tardo manierismo romano come Livio Agresti, Federico Zuccari, Durante Alberti, Girolamo Muziano, Cesare Nebbia e Antonio Tempesta. La sistemazione era quasi completata alla morte del cardinale (1572).
Dal 1605 il cardinale Alessandro d'Este diede avvio ad un nuovo programma di interventi per il restauro e la riparazione dei danni alla vegetazione e agli impianti idraulici, ma anche per creare una serie di innovazioni all'assetto del giardino e alla decorazione delle fontane.
Altri lavori furono eseguiti negli anni 1660 - 70, quando fu coinvolto lo stesso Gianlorenzo Bernini.
Nel XVIII secolo la mancata manutenzione provocò la decadenza del complesso, che si aggravò con il passaggio di proprietà alla Casa d'Asburgo. Il giardino fu pian piano abbandonato, i giochi idraulici, non più utilizzati, andarono in rovina e la collezione di statue antiche, risalente all'epoca del Cardinal Ippolito, fu smembrata e trasferita altrove.
Questo stato di degrado proseguì ininterrotto fino alla metà del XIX secolo, quando il cardinale Gustav von Hohelohe, ottenuta in enfiteusi la villa dai duchi di Modena nel 1851, avviò una serie di lavori per sottrarre il complesso alla rovina. La villa ricominciò così ad essere punto di riferimento culturale, e il cardinale ospitò spesso, tra il 1867 e il 1882, il musicista Franz Liszt (1811 - 1886), che proprio qui compose Giochi d'acqua a Villa d'Este, per pianoforte, e tenne, nel 1879, uno dei suoi ultimi concerti.
Allo scoppio della prima guerra mondiale la villa entrò a far parte delle proprietà dello Stato Italiano, fu aperta al pubblico e interamente restaurata negli anni 1920-30. Un altro radicale restauro fu eseguito, subito dopo la seconda guerra mondiale, per riparare i danni provocati dal bombardamento del 1944.  A causa delle condizioni ambientali particolarmente sfavorevoli, i restauri si sono da allora susseguiti quasi ininterrottamente nell’ultimo ventennio (fra questi va segnalato almeno il recente ripristino delle Fontane dell’Organo e del “Canto degli Uccelli”).
I Servizi
Visite guidate:
È previsto un servizio di visite guidate per la villa e il giardino.
I gruppi devono prenotare la visita con almeno CINQUE GIORNI LAVORATIVI di anticipo rivolgendosi al call center (199 766 166).
(Servizio attivo solo per l'Italia. Per chiamate dall'estero comporre ++39 02 89677761)

Costi:
- Visita guidata in lingua italiana (max. 25 persone) € 90. Ogni persona aggiuntiva € 3,50 fino a max. 50 persone.
- Visita guidata in lingua straniera (
inglese, francese, tedesco, spagnolo) (max 25 persone) € 110. Ogni persona aggiuntiva € 3,50 fino a max. 50 persone.

- Sono previste visite didattiche per le scuole, da prenotare obbligatoriamente tramite il call center.
Il costo della visita è di € 80 fino a 30 alunni. Ogni persona aggiuntiva € 3 fino a max. 50 persone.

Disabili:
La villa è dotata di ascensore e di un servizio di automezzi elettrici per permettere ai portatori di handicap l'accesso al giardino e alle fontane. Per accedere al servizio è obbligatoria la prenotazione al numero 0774 335850.
Il servizio è gratuito.

Audioguide:
È possibile usufruire di audioguide (in italiano e inglese ) per la visita della villa e del giardino. Queste potranno essere noleggiate all'ingresso al costo di 4 € .
All'interno della villa sono, inoltre, presenti due bookshop, una caffetteria e un ristorante con terrazza panoramica.
Informazioni Utili
Call Center 199766166
Numero unico da tutta Italia per prevendita e prenotazioni di: biglietti, visite guidate, gruppi scolatici, visite didattiche.
(Servizio attivo solo per l'Italia. Per chiamate dall'estero comporre ++39 02 89677761)
 
Orario di visita:

Apertura 8.30 – chiusura un’ora prima del tramonto.
La biglietteria termina il servizio un’ora prima della chiusura del monumento.
L'organo idraulico della fontana dell'Organo viene attivato quotidianamente ai seguenti orari: 10:30, 12:30, 15:30 e 17:30.
La fontana della Civetta viene messa in funzione ogni giorno ai seguenti orari: 10:00, 12:00, 15:00, 17:00.
 
Giorni di chiusura:

tutti i lunedì e il 1° Gennaio, il 1° maggio e il 25 dicembre. Se il lunedì è giorno festivo, il monumento è aperto al pubblico e la chiusura settimanale viene posticipata al primo giorno feriale successivo.
 
MINISTRY FOR CULTURAL ASSETS AND ACTIVITIES
Superintendence for Architectural Assets, Landscape, Historical Artistically and Demo-ethno-anthropological Heritage of Lazio
Villa d’Este, Tivoli
 
Adgang kan ske Udgang senest
januar 8.30 - 16.,00 17.00
februar 8.30 - 16.30 17.30
marts 8.30 - 17.15 18.15
april 8.30 - 18.30 19.30
maj 8.30 - 18.45 19.45
juni 8.30 - 18.45 19.45
juli 8.30 - 18.45 19.45
august 8.30 - 18.45 19.45
september 8.30 - 18.15 19.15
oktober 8.30 - 17.30 18.30
november 8.30 - 16.00 17.00
december 8.30 - 16.00 17.00
 
TICKET OFFICE REGULATIONS
ENTRANCE DISPOSITIONS:
Tickets are valid only for Villa d’Este, for the day they are issued and only for one visit. Exiting the Villa and re-entering with the same ticket is not allowed.
Visitors must keep their tickets until they exit.
Visitors under the age of 15 must always be escorted by adults.
Group leaders must individually distribute tickets to the group members. School groups escorted by teachers will be accepted only following a mandatory reservation of the visit (call centre 199 766 166. From outside Italy, please call ++39 02 89677761). The eventual interruption of water delivery to fountains or the closure of some areas does not entitle visitors to a ticket refund.
The Villa is open to the public from Tuesday to Sunday in the hours listed below. Monday is the day of weekly closure. If there is a holiday on Monday, closure will be transferred to Tuesday.
 
FREE TICKETS
Are granted:
To the entire personnel of the Ministry for Cultural Assets and Activities following the presentation of a qualifying identification document.
To the forces of the police, the carabinieri, the guardia di finanza, the penitentiary police following the presentation of their service badges.
To military and fire fighting personnel if in uniform and escorted by their officers.
To the citizens of the European Union if under the age of 18 or above the age of 65 following the presentation of an identification document.
To groups and comities of students of Italian schools, of any order and rank escorted by their teachers.
To university students of historical-artistical topics and to students of Fine Art Academies.
To the pupils of restoration schools (Opificio delle Pietre Dure di Firenze, Scuola del Mosaico di Ravenna, Istituto Centrale del Restauro di Roma)
To tour guides during the exercise of their professional activity and to tourist interpreters when their work next to the guide is necessary following the exhibition of a valid licence issued by the competent authorities.
To journalists following the presentation of their roll identification pass.
 
Garden Description: No other garden has such spectacular waterworks and theatrical effects. The Ville d’Este is the most important example of a Mannerist garden and verges into the Baroque. Shunning the simplicity of early Tuscan gardens, this Roman ‘retreat’ was designed for the Estes. Cardinal Ippolito d’Este was as proud as he was rich. Visitors could enter by the garden gate at the lowest point of the garden. As they ascended the hill, the water marvels, and the story, unfolded: the garden tells of the family’s illustrious ancestors. They included Hercules and other heroes of antiquity. The garden has many references of Ovid’s Metamorphosis. If the baroque spectacle achieved its purpose, one arrived at the top believing the Estes to be the most glorious family in the roll-call of history. But the whole garden is only glimpsed from the central axis; one has to keep turning to explore different parts. The Aniene River makes music, with the aid of a water organ, and supplies innumerable fountains. Many of the statues were obtained by excavating ancient Roman sites. Pirro Ligorio supervised these excavations and was the genius behind the garden’s conception. It is the product of archaeology, eridudition and a joyous imagination. Few of the original statues remain in position, because the garden has suffered many periods of neglect. Today it is well cared for and immensely popular. The Path of One Hundred Fountains is in good condition and the Rometta Fountain has mellowed. It is a miniature representation of Rome and used to be criticised for its light heartedness.

The Villa d'Este is the most famous of all the Renaissance and Mannerist residences in Europe. One might well ask why. It is not that much bigger or more luxurious than the Villa Lante, not that much more stunning than Bomarzo.
It is perhaps because of the famous guests who resided at the Villa d'Este.
In the 19th century, the Cardinal of Hohenzollern allowed his best friend to stay there. This friend was Franz Liszt.
Liszt would come to Tivoli regularly, over a period of four years. There, he composed the famous "Jeux d'Eaux à la Villa d'Este".
During the 18th century, Hubert Robert and Fragonard accompanied the Abbot of Saint-Nom on his Italian voyage. These two artists sketched the most beautiful drawings to be found of the countryside. A century earlier, de Brosse wrote his most vibrant letters on Italian taste while residing there. Naturally, Montaigne visited the Villa d'Este.

The Villa d'Este was commissioned and built by Cardinal Ippolito d'Este.
Born in 1509, he was a man of the 16th century and the Mannerist generation. His roots were already Mannerist: he was the son of Lucrezia Borgia and the grandson of Pope Alexander VI. We can speak of Mannerist expressionism.
He was the only Cardinal who could say that he was the grandson of the Pope. It would seem that he never missed an opportunity to do so.
Lucrezia was Alexander VI's daughter. He arranged her marriage to Alfonso I, duke of Ferrara. Ippolito was the son of Lucrezia and Alfonso I.
Ippolito d'Este was a bishop at the age of two, an archbishop at the age of ten and a cardinal at thirty. At the age of forty-one, he came close to becoming Pope. A meteoric career. The papal throne was wrested from him by Julius III.
A dreadful rivalry existed between Ippolito and Julius III. The success of the latter brought about the former's exile. Julius III immediately sent him packing by naming him the Governor of Tivoli. This was extraordinarily clever of him: a governor could not leave the province he governed.
He thus imprisoned him in Tivoli, and the cardinal spent the last twenty years of his life there.
From 1550 until his death in 1572, one of the most erudite, cultured, intelligent and disconcerting men in Europe created his dream world: the most fabulous Mannerist garden.

The garden of the Villa d'Este.

Some excellent artists worked at the Villa d'Este.

Pirro Ligorio collaborated with Ippolito for seventeen years.

Thomaso Chiruchi, the best hydraulic engineer of the 16th century.

Claude Venard, a Burgundian, the most extraordinary manufacturer of hydraulic organs in the world.

Three very good painters, Federico Zuccaro, Livio Agresti and Girolaio Luchiano.

We are in Tivoli, very near Rome. The countryside is beautiful. A modest villa, small and austere, stands in the center of the town of Tivoli, its main courtyard simply paved with black, white and red stones and a small, fake grotto, discreet, a sleeping Ariadne...

 
 


Vis stort kort
 

HOME.

SITEMAP.

Lej feriehus nær Rom - vil du vide mere.....  så ring  40 78 39 00  -eller email@lazio.dk

VALUTAOMREGNER    VEJFINDER    VEJRET    FLYBAGAGEREGLER    LEJ BIL    KALENDER    FORSIKRING


..TOP